Rafter, Nicole Hahn.Prisons In America: A Reference Handbook. Abe Clio, 1999.

Rafter presents an overview of the prison system since colonial times with discussion on the debate over rehabilitation versus punishment; biographies of key figures; a chronology of notable events in penal history; current data on sentencing, prison system growth, and prisoner characteristics; information on prisoners? rights, famous legal gases, and policy changes; a directory of professional organizations and agencies; and lists of print and nonprint resources. The book also discusses critical prison problems today such as overcrowding, operational costs, three-strikes legislation, units for special populations such as inmates with AIDS and the criminally insane; and new penal trends, programs and services.

Human Rights Watch. U.S.: Cold Storage- Supermaximum Security in Indiana

Visiting two supermaximum security prisons in Indiana, the Human Rights Watch examined inhumane treatment prisoners receive. The prisoners in those facilities spend an average of 23 hours a day in a small, often windowless cells, facing years of extreme social isolation, enforced idleness, and limited recreational or educational opportunities. The Human Rights Watch pays special attention to the treatment of those with pre-existing mental illnesses.